Multiple actions taken by employers, their proxies and governments, in attempt to stop the formation and development of trade unions. Tactics for union busting can range from calm to violent, illegal to legal, and also include challenging unions in courts of law, lockouts, strike breaking, physical confrontation and intimidation, preemption through the creation of employer controlled trade unions or the sponsorship of anti-union organizations. The term is used by labor organizations in an effort to describe individuals and/or organizations. The union avoidance industry consists of four main groups: labor consultants, industrial psychologists, law firms, and strike management firms. The term union buster may be applied to any agency that undertakes such projects including employers who take action on their own, or employers who hire union busting agencies in order to accomplish the same goals.